Sunday, 28 August 2016


The Most Ignored Art – The Art of Listening
                                                                                               
“Most people listen without hearing,” Leonardo Da Vinci. Listening is the most important language skill. When a child is conceived in his mother’s womb he starts listening then and there only. Whatever he listens inside, it shapes his personality after the birth. In the beginning itself, he starts listening individual sound without associating them to meanings. When he enters in this world he starts participating in face to face conversation and responding in single syllable words. After attentive listening he begins to utter multi-syllable words. Gradually when he matures he is able to understand the contextual meanings of oral symbols.

In the era of information technology, there is bombardment of information around us. Information is all-pervasive and this excessive information leads to reduction in concentration span. As the information is so readily available that we hardly listen, either we listen to refute or support but not to understand. Most of the people don’t understand that art of speech also improves when we listen attentively. Experience of our day to day activities adds to our background knowledge to infer the latent meaning of conversation. One who develops art of listening begins to understand the tone and attitude along with non-verbal communication. As a result of serious kind of listening one can listen to what others feel as well as what they say. Listening increases the power of reasoning and logic and interprets various situations. One who listens properly can articulate his ideas properly.

Listening is an active interpretation that shapes our realities, and it’s the answer to improving our productivity that leads to success in our lives. Various communication research studies have found out that we spent our 50-80% of conscious time in communicating. Half of that requires listening as communication is a two-way process. Your brain can think at between 4 and 10 times the speed of speech.  This means that when you are listening, you have lots of spare time to use your extra ‘brain time.

People who have poor art of listening pretend to pay attention while they are not. They try to do other things while listening. When not listened properly they find trainings and seminars uninteresting.  So they get distracted by the speaker’s way of speech, or other mannerisms. They concentrate on  distractions instead of what is being said at times over listening also creates problems like getting over-involved and thus losing the main thread of the arguments or thoughts. They over react in emotion-filled situations which may arouse personal anger and antagonism. At times people listen to collect facts only.  As a result they avoid anything that is complex or difficult.


Listening is learnt first and used most, but taught least. During foundation years of our training and teaching to young ones we hardly focus on this important skill. It is not a passive activity but an important ingredient of effective communication. Listening well is the vital ingredient in a successful, productive and interesting conversation. To improve listening habits one must be aware that daily work out helps in increase in efficiency in listening. Try to isolate only those sounds you want to hear; you will become adept at filtering out unwanted noise. Remember that you have two ears and one mouth – not the other way around. The wiser the person the less he speaks and the more he listens. 


Dr. Kiran Bala
Associate Professor
Dept. of Communication Studies

TAXATION AND INDIAN ECONOMY

India is a developing country.  The government plays an active role in promoting economic growth & development because private ownership & capital are limited. Fiscal policy or budget is considered to be an important instrument in promoting development & growth of the economy .Taxation is most important part of fiscal policy which can be used productively by the government. India has a well developed tax structure. The three tiers of Government, in accordance with the provisions of the Indian Constitution are empowered to impose tax. Also the tax structure of Indian economy consists of:  Direct and Indirect taxes. Income Tax, Corporate and Wealth Tax are one of the major direct taxes whereas Custom duty, Sales Tax, VAT, Excise Duty and upcoming (proposed) GST are indirect taxes.

So many changes have taken place in Indian Taxation structure due to liberalization and Economic Reforms. Some of the changes are:- rationalization of tax structure; progressive decrease in peak rates of customs duty ; decrease in corporate tax rate; customs duties to be aligned with ASEAN levels; widening of the tax base ; introduction of value added tax ; tax laws have been simplified to ensure better compliance. GST if implemented will going to prove a major improvement in the field of indirect taxation.

Taxation enables the government to stimulate a significant amount of revenue. During the financial year 2006-07, it is estimated that the tax revenue of the India was 81% of the total revenue receipts, whereas, non tax revenue was only 19%. Taxation in India follows the principle of equity. The direct taxes are progressive in nature. Also certain indirect taxes, such as taxes on luxury goods are also progressive in nature. This means the higher income group has to bear the higher burden of taxes, whereas, the lower income group is either exempted from tax (direct taxes) or has to pay lower rate of taxes. Taxation improves the distribution of income and wealth. It also foster the social welfare growth. The social welfare originates due to certain unwanted products like alcoholic products, tobacco products and such other products are heavily taxed, which restricts their consumption, which in turn facilitates social welfare. A part of the tax revenue is employed for social development activities, such as education, health and family welfare, which also improve social welfare as well as social order in the society. Taxation promotes exports and limit imports. Generally, developing countries and even the developed countries do not levy taxes on export items.  In India, exports are exempted from excise duty, VAT, customs duty and other duties. However, there is customs duty on imported goods.

Taxation helps to: Earn foreign exchange through the promotion of exports. It is also used as a tool of controlling inflation. Through taxation, the Government can control inflation in the following ways: - Inflation due to high rise in prices of essential items can be controlled by reducing the rate of indirect taxes. Inflation due to increase in demand can be controlled by discouraging the demand through increase in taxation/duty. Increase in tax rate may restrict consumption, which may reduce demand, and subsequently inflation may be controlled. Taxation induces regional development; Tax incentives such as tax holiday for setting up industries in backward regions, which induces business firms to set up industries in such regions, Tax revenue collected by government is also used for development of infrastructure in backward regions. Indirect taxes provides adequate source of development funds. These taxes are found to be better suited in developing countries because they have much wider coverage as compared to direct taxes. Both rich and poor pay indirect taxes in form of commodity price. In India collection of direct taxes is not very significant. Only a small proportion of population pays such taxes. Direct taxes are primary used in such to reduce unequal distribution of income  High degree of progression used in direct taxes discourages savings done by high income group and adversely effects investment and capital formation. Indirect taxes are used to divert resources from less desired use to more desired one in developing countries. 

Individual resident aged below 60 years (i.e. born on or after 1st April 1956)


Income Slabs
Tax Rates
i.
Where the taxable income does not exceed Rs. 2,50,000/-.
NIL
ii.
Where the taxable income exceeds Rs. 2,50,000/- but does not exceed Rs. 5,00,000/-.
10% of amount by which the taxable income exceeds Rs. 2,50,000/-.
Less : Tax Credit u/s 87A - 10% of taxable income upto a maximum of Rs. 2000/-.
iii.
Where the taxable income exceeds Rs. 5,00,000/- but does not exceed Rs. 10,00,000/-.
Rs. 25,000/- + 20% of the amount by which the taxable income exceeds Rs. 5,00,000/-.
iv.
Where the taxable income exceeds Rs. 10,00,000/-.
Rs. 125,000/- + 30% of the amount by which the taxable income exceeds Rs. 10,00,000/-.
Surcharge : 12% of the Income Tax, where taxable income is more than Rs. 1 crore. , if applicable)
Education Cess : 3% of the total of Income Tax and Surcharge.

Senior Citizen (Individual resident who is of the age of 60 years or more but below the age of 80 years i.e. born on or after 1st April 1936 but before 1st April 1956:


Income Slabs
Tax Rates
i.
Where the taxable income does not exceed Rs. 3,00,000/-.
NIL
ii.
Where the taxable income exceeds Rs. 3,00,000/- but does not exceed Rs. 5,00,000/-
10% of the amount by which the taxable income exceeds Rs. 3,00,000/-.
Less : Tax Credit u/s 87A - 10% of taxable income upto a maximum of Rs. 2000/-.
iii.
Where the taxable income exceeds Rs. 5,00,000/- but does not exceed Rs. 10,00,000/-
Rs. 20,000/- + 20% of the amount by which the taxable income exceeds Rs. 5,00,000/-.
iv.
Where the taxable income exceeds Rs. 10,00,000/-
Rs. 120,000/- + 30% of the amount by which the taxable income exceeds Rs. 10,00,000/-.
Surcharge : 12% of the Income Tax, where taxable income is more than Rs. 1 crore. , if applicable)
Education Cess : 3% of the total of Income Tax and Surcharge.

Super Senior Citizen (Individual resident who is of the age of 80 years or more i.e. born before 1st April 1936):

Income Slabs
Tax Rates
i.
Where the taxable income does not exceed Rs. 5,00,000/-.
NIL
ii.
Where the taxable income exceeds Rs. 5,00,000/- but does not exceed Rs. 10,00,000/-
20% of the amount by which the taxable income exceeds Rs. 5,00,000/-.
iii.
Where the taxable income exceeds Rs. 10,00,000/-
Rs. 100,000/- + 30% of the amount by which the taxable income exceeds Rs. 10,00,000/-.
Surcharge : 12% of the Income Tax, where taxable income is more than Rs. 1 crore. , if applicable)
Education Cess : 3% of the total of Income Tax and Surcharge.

CONCLUSION : Both direct and indirect taxes are essential to generate sufficient revenue to the state for meeting the increasing public expenditure. Both taxes are essential to foster the economic growth, fill employment and economic stability. Direct and indirect taxes should go side by side & balance each other.A well oriented system of taxation requires combination of direct & indirect taxes in different proportions.



 Ms. Meenakshi Chopra
Assistant Professor
Dept. of Management Studies

Monday, 22 August 2016


Quality of Websites


As web usage is growing daily the populations round the globe are coming nearer. With the arrival of World Wide internet as a colossal development, it's amazingly brought the globe nearer creating it a smaller thing to live in for its user. The quantity of persons seeking data and services on-line are increasing quickly in nearly each country of the globe. The people expect websites to avoid wasting their cash and time. The responsibility of the website developer is to create/design websites that are straightforward to use and are accessible to every sort of person. Implementing the straightforward principle of getting web site that works well and doesn’t confuse the user or get him annoyed, can facilitate to cut back the abandonment of the web site by visitors. However throughout the development phase of website, errors creep into the design of internet sites either internally or externally.

Evaluation is an organized determination of a subject's merit, price and significance, by using criteria ruled by a group of standards. Design, organization and simple use are necessary issues. Websites can offer helpful sources of information; but if they are slow to load and/or troublesome to navigate, search or scan, then their contribution or utility are going to be diminished. An efficient internet website style is one within which users are able to notice data quickly and in an exceedingly logical manner.

Do they visit the content you would like them to visit? Are they searching within the right places of your internet page? Are you able to get your user’s attention, or do they leave quickly?
It’s not with regards to the content either. If website’s design load slowly – or if moving from one section to a different takes in an extended time – it affects the user’s expertise and experience.

Things must be considered in web site design are as follows:
• is very important information being looked by the user?
• are the navigation and action things intuitive?
• is that the user being directed to sections in a logical way?
• is the website page load quickly enough to not withdraw the user?

Following parameters can be used to analyze the quality of websites:

1.      Total HTML
2.      Total Objects
3.      Total Images
4.      Total CSS
5.      Total Size (bytes)
6.      Total Script
7.      HTML Size  (bytes)
8.      Image Size (bytes)
9.      Script Size (bytes)
10.  CSS Size (bytes)
11.  Multimedia Size


The online tool “web Analyzer” can be used to analyze the websites because it provides a detailed analysis of the websites tested and therefore the areas that require to be improved. The websites contains a serious accessibility downside. There is associate imperative got to improve the total size, minimize the amount of external objects, size of pictures used etc. to create e-government websites to be simpler, extremely user-centric, effective and simple accessible for the users.


Ms. Poonam Malik
Assistant Professor
Dept. of Management Studies

Friday, 22 July 2016

Camera Lens

Photography has become the part and parcel of our lives. We cannot imagine our life without photography. There is nofield left which does not use photography. Weather its newspaper, advertising, fashion, medicine, industry, astronomy etc. photography is tend to stay there and with advent of Facebook, WhatsApp and other social networking media use of photography is increasing day by day. Whether we are at home or outside we tend to see so many photographs every day. The most common use of photography is to preserve memories. As memories fades away with time so we keep photographs of the special occasions or moments to preserve the memories we don’t want forget. But besides preserving memories photography is an important tool of communication. There is a very well-known saying about photography that “a picture is worth than thousand words” i.e. the message which cannot be communicated by a thousand word story can be easily communicated by a single photograph.

In simple words photography can be defined as capturing of moment with a device called camera. And in technical terms it can be defined as drawing with light or capturing light with the help of a device called camera. So photography is not possible in absence of camera. Camera is a light tight box with has a lens on one side and recording medium on the other side.

 Lens is the most important part of a camera, without a lens we cannot take a photograph. Also the type of a photograph depends upon the type of a lens. For example if u want click distant objects or want to focus on specific details of the subject then u will have a different kind of lens rather than when you want to shoot huge area. In this article we will talk about the photography lenses and their uses so that u can buy the appropriate lens for your camera.

Lens is an optical device with perfect or approximate axial symmetry which transmits and refracts light, converging or diverging the beam.Camera lens is an assembly of lenses used in combination with camera body and mechanism to make images of objects either on photographic film or on other media capable of storing an image chemically or electronically. A lens may be permanently fixed to a camera, or it may be interchangeable with lenses of different focal lengths, apertures, and other properties.

A lens is categorized by its focal length. Focal length of a lens is defined as the distance from the optical center of a lens to the focal point (sensor) when the lens is focused on an object at infinity. It's a primary physical characteristic of a lens which can be measured in an optical lab. It remains the same no matter what camera the lens is mounted on.

Focal length determines the angle of view or how much area of a scene the lens sees. Wide angle lenses have short focal lengths, while telephoto lenses have longer corresponding focal lengths.. Angle of View refers to the amount of a scene a photograph captures and can be measured vertically, horizontally or diagonally. Angle of view is also known field of view, angle of view changes given the type of lens a photographer uses to take a picture.

There are the various types of lenses one should know before buying a camera lens.

Prime lens
A prime lens, also known as a fixed lens, has a fixed focal length such as 18mm, 50mm, 105mm, or 200mm. A fixed-focal length camera lens is a permanent, non- adjustable lens. Prime lenses often have wider maximumapertures, making them faster. Wider apertures allow forbrighter images in low-light situations, as well as greatercontrol over depth of field.These lenses are primarily used by portrait photographers.

Zoom lens
A zoom lens has the mechanical capacity to change its focal length. It magnifies the subject. A zoom lens is very convenient, because many zoom lenses can change their focal lengths from wide-angle to standard and from standard to zoom. This eliminates the need to carry and change multiple lenses while shooting a subject or project.

Telephoto Lens
A telephoto lens is a long focal length. This type of lens is used for distant objects. This lens brings the subject closer. It reduces the distance between the subject and camera especially when you cannot go close to your subject. This lens is specially used in wildlife photography.

Wide-Angle Lens
A wide-angle lens is a short focal length lens and covers a wide area.  Wide-angle lenses are typically used for the subject is in the extreme foreground and the photographer wants the background in focus as well. Wide-angle lenses are thus ideal for photographing buildings, landscapes, interiors, and street photography. A photographer should not use a wide-angle lens if he wants to focus in on the details of a single, distinct subject.

Macro Lens
Macro lenses are lenses typically optimized to focus sharply on a relatively small area, usually used for close-Macro lenses or lenses with a macro mode are used for close up photography of insects or flowers. "Macro" lenses specifically designed for close-up work, with a long barrel for close focusing and optimized for high reproduction ratios, are one of the most common tools for macro photography.

Fish-eye lenses are at the fringe of wide angle lenses and offer a distorted perspective of the scene so that objects are magnified in the center and diminish in size and clarity in all directions in proportion to the lens' shape. Their angle of view is typically a full 180% but some fisheye lenses produce an even greater field of view (as much as 220 degrees in some cases).


These are the various types of lenses one can buy for your camera on the basis of his/her requirement. 

Ms. Sanyogita Chaoudhary
Assistant Professor
Dept. of Communication Studies

Wednesday, 20 July 2016


Sixth Sense Technology

Human beings have evolved over many decades to sense the world around them. When we come across something, someone or some place, we generally use our five natural senses to comprehend information about it; that information helps us to make decisions and choose the right action to take.

Nevertheless, the most useful information that guides us to make the right decision is not naturally perceivable with our five senses, namely the data, information and knowledge that have been gathered about everything and which is easily available online.

Information until few last years was limited to paper or digitally on screen. Sixth sense technology bridges this gap, putting intangible, digital information out into the tangible world, and permitting the users to interact with this information via natural hand gestures.

Sixth sense technology enables the information to be free from its confines by seamlessly integrating it with reality. Basically Sixth sense is a “gesture based” device that is wearable and connects the physical world with digital information and allows people to use natural hand gestures to interact with that information.

The concept of augmented reality and its smooth implementation on the perceptions are the basic working principle of Sixth sense technology. The amazing Sixth sense technology is a combination of many predefined exquisite technology. The marvelous integration of all the technologies is one of the features that make the Sixth sense technology magnificent and its presentation into a single product which is portable and highly economical. It includes technologies like hand gestures, image capturing, processing and manipulation. It super imposes the digital world onto the real world.

The Sixth sense technology functions as a gateway or in better terms an interface between the digital world and the real world. The Sixth sense device which was invented by PranavMistry at MIT Media Lab was coined the name WuW(Wear Your World) and it is believes to be the prototype of next level of digital to real world transaction.

Multiuser interaction is one of the features that have been added to Sixth sense devices.  With the help of this feature the user can interact with systems by using more than one finger at a time. Sixth sense devices also incorporate Multi user functionality. This is typically useful for large interaction scenarios such as table tops and walls.

With the use of Sixth sense technology online information and technology can be incorporated into everyday life in a seamless manner. By providing already obtained information required for decision making beyond what we have access to with our natural five senses, it effectively gives users a sixth sense.

Advantages of Sixth sense technology:

  •  Portability—The major advantage of sixth sense devices is its small size and its portability. The device can be easily carried around without any difficulty. All of the Sixth sense devices are light in weight and the smart phones cans easily be accommodated to fit in to the user’s pocket.
  • Cost Effectiveness—One of the good feature of Sixth sense devices is that they are very economic. The cost required for the construction of the device is very low. It was manufactured from various parts collected together from common devices.. Commonly, a Sixth sense device might cost up to $300.
  •  Accessibility of Data from machines in real time—The Sixth sense device helps the user to easily access data from any machine at real time speed. The user now does not need any machine human interface to access the data. The accessibility of data via recognition of hand gestures is much easier and user friendly as compared to the text user interface or graphical user interface which requires keyboard or mouse.
  • Open Source Software—The software that would be required to interpret and analyze the data collected by the device is supposed to be made open source as claimed by its inventor. This will enable other developers to contribute to the development of the system.
  
Ms. Priyanka Gupta
Assistant Professor
Deptt. of Information Technology 


Mapping into the stream of Journalism and mass communication

Today, the world is witnessing an extraordinary and unparalleled burst in communication technology and media. All limitations have been surpassed, and the entire global community looks to have brought closer and together into one whole integrated entity.This has become one of the reasons that mass-communication and journalism, as a field of study, and as a career, becomes so enviable and central. Journalism and mass communication field is considered to be the root of all other forms of power to educate, express and share with people in the existing society.

Mass communication is a contemporary reality and the media it uses covers all aspects of human life. Career prospect in Mass Communication and journalism is a great deal of job satisfaction and expression of creativity for the people associated with this stream.

Presently, Mass communication and Journalism is one of the attractive careers for young people looking for creative opportunities in their lives. This stream definitely  empower one to have a say in front of a national and international audience, it is also considered as  one of the four pillars of our democracy which in return gives a lot of supremacy to influence ideas and opinion in the public space. This is true that profession in media is competing and challenging job but it is also measured as one of the most versatile fields in the job market. As this field enables to brings newness every hour, every minute and every second of the day.

 Today, youngsters are fast inclined and tempted by the plentiful development and rewarding opportunities given and acknowledged in media. Newspaper, magazines, TV, Radio, cinema, and web world are the important streams of media. These medium of communication is been tuned up by so many people for latest updates and news. Indeed, Media plays a vital role in spreading, sharing and exchanging information about the recent events, incidents happen in the region and around the world. Journalism and mass communication field in India has a very vital role to play. India is considered world's biggest democracy and therefore unrestricted and vibrant media is an essential organ of any democracy.

With the advent of online media and privatization of media, the mass communication and journalism world has gone through a complete makeover.The face of journalism has shaped differently with the emergence of social media. The Websites such as twitter, Facebook, and Linked-In are turning out to be an important forum of news sources for many of their followers.These online forums are able to secure the most sought after jobs in social media for young aspirations who are looking to make their career in social media. Even professional blogging, web design, multimedia design, or social media management can be other opportunities for the young people to do something different from mainstream journalism and mass communication.

However, with technology playing bigger role in our lives, all professions related to journalism and mass communication require capable people who should work fast and can efficiently send across the information to a whole range of audience. Even though with the multiplying of blogs, it is commonly claimed that ‘anyone’ can become a journalist, a near reexamination of reality verifies that only those with expert training make the grade and turn out better than the rest in this field.

Career prospects in mass communication and journalism is likely to grow as not less than 50 more  news channels are expected to  come up in next five years. Due to increasing number of mass media, the news and entertainment job opportunities are abundant for trained professionals in various roles - particularly in journalism.

Like any career option, mass communication too has positive features as well as a dismissive side too. A career in mass communication requires commitment, dedication and detriment of private time for the sake of staying on day and night, top or front,and particularly in TV news industry. As journalist may have to work day in and day out to get breaking news.

In the present juncture, mass communication as a career provides job fulfillment, name and fame and an experiment to live with.


Ms. Garima Malhotra
Assistant Professor
Dept. of Communication Studies