Monday, 8 January 2018

Impact of GST and Digital India on Indian SMEs

There are many sectors where we can have the amazing impact on goods and services tax (GST) and digital India programme. A study said that these programs are meant to support Indian economy and making all the transaction legal and transparent. Providing basic infrastructure to all type of SMEs is a big task that has to be performed by the government to have full-fledged digital India. We may have different types of benefits of GST on Indian SMEs like launching a new business becomes easier, the entire process of taxation becomes simpler, reduced cost of logistics, the distinction between goods and services will be eliminated, increased threshold limits for new businesses etc. On the other side, GST also has some demerits like multiple registrations for Pan-India businesses, returns must be filed on a monthly basis, cost of tax compliance is likely to increase, registration will be mandatory for e-commerce suppliers and operators etc. Overall, we should appreciate the GST bill that has simplified the entire process of filing and paying taxes. We can expect in future it will also increase the competition between SMEs by unifying the Indian market. If you’re proactive and take care of your GST compliance measures beforehand, you can minimize the potential negative effects of the new regime on your business. In the long term, GST is expected to have a positive impact on SMEs and the Indian economy as a whole. Irrespective of the bright side of GST, SMEs must be mindful of its accompanying challenges such as an increase in compliance costs and alignment of IT systems with new processes. Thus, for the SMEs, GST throws a mixed bag of opportunities and challenges to explore. So we can say that GST and Digital India programme, it’s a revolutionary initiative but a huge effort needs to be done to make it a success. If Indian SMEs performing cash transaction only and not following digital India programme then we also consider that cash transactions have their own drawbacks - there is a lack of transparency, need extensive bookkeeping work and reconciliation of cash takes time. Also, there is room for errors due to extensive manual work involved. Business processes take more time to complete the physical movement of cash takes time, and this can impact cash inflow drastically - a pain area for small businesses. There are many benefits of cashless/digitization of Indian SMEs likes Faster, Safer Payment Cycles, Legal Implications, Operational Efficiency, Wider Marketing Avenues etc. Indian SMEs may refer net banking/ account Transfers, Plastic Money, Unified Payments Interface (UPI), Aadhaar Payment App, E-Wallets, Point of Sale (POS), Machines Launch Your Store Online and much more e-commerce activity can be added to support Indian SMEs.

Mr. Pramod Pandey 
Assistant Professor
Dept. of Management Studies

Postmodernism : Social Issues and Patterns in Film Innovation

The movie business as we most likely am mindful it today began in the mid nineteenth century through a movement of imaginative enhancements: the arrangement of photography, the exposure of the dream of development by solidifying solitary still pictures, and the examination of human and animal speed. The history showed here begins at the flawlessness of these creative headways, where the likelihood of the film as a media outlet at first rose. Starting now and into the foreseeable future, the industry has seen extraordinary changes, some controlled by the imaginative dreams of individual individuals, some by business need, and still others unexpectedly. The verifiable scenery of the film is unusual, and for each indispensable trailblazer and advancement recorded here, others have been overlooked. Regardless, in the wake of examining this region you will understand the wide twist of the headway of a medium that has gotten the inventive capacities of gatherings of spectators worldwide for over a century.

Movies Reflect Culture

The relationship among movies and culture incorporates a caught component; while American movies emphatically affect the mass culture that exhausts them, they are in like manner a vital piece of that culture, a consequence of it, and thusly an impression of winning concerns, perspectives, and feelings. In thinking about the relationship among film and culture, it is basic to recollect that, while certain rationalities may be dominating in a given time, not only is American culture as different as the masses that shape it, in any case it is furthermore continually hinting at change beginning with one period then onto the following. Standard motion pictures made in the late 1940s and into the 1950s, for example, reflected the conservatism that overpowered the sociopolitical fields of the time. In any case, by the 1960s, a reactionary youth culture began to rise in opposition to the overarching associations, and these mutinous points of view soon found their course onto screen—far from the manners most customarily addressed only a few years earlier.

In one sense, movies could be depicted as America's storytellers. Not only do Hollywood motion pictures reflect certain consistently held perspectives and feelings about being American, yet they similarly delineate contemporary examples, issues, and events, filling in as records of the circumstances in which they were made. Consider, for example, motion pictures about the September 11, 2001, fear based oppressor ambushes: Fahrenheit 9/11, World Trade Center, Joined 93, and others. These motion pictures wound up noticeably out of an essential event of the time, one that charmed the consciousness of Americans for a significant long time after it happened.

Filmmaking is both a business and amazing meander. The current money related condition in the film business, with extended creation and advancing costs and lower get-together of individuals turnouts in theaters, frequently sets the standard for the motion pictures tremendous studios will place assets into. In case you inquire as to why theaters have released such a substantial number of changes and turn offs of late, this region may help you to fathom the awakening segments behind those decisions

The Effect of New Development

New developments have a noteworthy impact, in travel motion pictures are made, and additionally on the fiscal structure of the film business. Right when VCR advancement made on-ask for home movie seeing plausible shockingly, makers expected to conform to a developing business sector. The present change to cutting edge advancement similarly addresses a vital turning point for film. In this portion, you will make sense of how these and distinctive advances have changed the substance of silver screen.

Effects of Home Fervor

The chief development for home video recording, Sony's Betamax tapes, hit the market in 1975. The contraption, a joined television and videocassette recorder (VCR), went with the high sticker cost of $2,495, making it an indulgence still exorbitantly expensive for the typical American home. Following two years, RCA released the vertical helical yield (VHS) game plan of recording, which would over the long haul outperform Betamax, however neither one of the gadgets was yet a notable purchaser thing. Inside a long time regardless, home movie recording and study was beginning to get on. In 1979, Columbia Pictures released 20 films for home overview, and following a year Disney entered the market with the at first affirmed video rental game plan for retail stores. By 1983, VCRs were still for the most part incredible, found in just 10 percent of American homes, yet inside 2 years the contraption had discovered a place in right around 33% of U.S.

The Optical Circle Structure

In 1980, around the time when customers were as of late purchasing VCRs for home use, Pioneer Equipment introduced another advancement, the Laser Plate, an optical amassing circle that conveyed higher quality pictures than did VHS tapes. In any case, by virtue of its broad size (12 sneaks in separate over) and nonappearance of recording capacities, this early plate structure never got the chance to be unmistakably celebrated in the U.S. publicize. In any case, the LaserDisc's successor, the progressed versatile plate (DVD) was a substitute story. Like LaserDisc, the DVD is an optical accumulating circle—that is, a device whose encoded information takes after a twisting case on the plate's surface and can be examined when lit up by a laser diode. In any case, not at all like the basic sorted out LaserDisc, the DVD's information amassing is out and out cutting edge, mulling over a humbler, lighter, more stuffed medium.

The primary DVDs were released in stores in 1997, awing customers and distributers with their different great conditions over the VHS tape: more sharpened assurance pictures, conservativeness, higher strength, natural one of a kind components, and better copy security. In only a few years, offers of DVD players and plates beat those of VCRs and chronicles, making the DVD the most immediately got buyer equipment result ever.

Mr. Anish Saxena
Assistant Professor
Dept. of Communication Studies

Friday, 29 December 2017

An Enhanced Sender-Based Packet Loss-Recovery Technique 
in VoIP

VoIP Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) is a telephony technology that commonly uses the real-time transport protocol (RTP) to transport voice packets over a IP based network. RTP runs on top of the user datagram protocol (UDP), and thus it is an unreliable delivery protocol. When a packet loss occurs, the quality of the audio at the receiving endpoint degrades because the receiving endpoint does not have voice data for regenerating the lost segment of the audio. Researchers proposed many techniques for improving quality of service (QoS) in the face of packet loss. Some of these techniques employ receiver-based packet loss concealment (PLC) approaches and others employ sender-based loss- recovery techniques (SBLR), where the sender assumes an active role to help the receiver recover lost data or improve QoS when packet loss occurs. Most SBLR mechanisms work by retransmitting voice data or by transmitting additional data. In what follow, this article briefly describe various sender-based loss- recovery techniques currently used.

Interleaving: This technique adds part of the same voice signal segment in different packets thus spreading the impact of loss over longer time period. Forward Error Correction (FEC) works by transmitting redundant packets for error correction. Redundant Data Transmission (RDT) works by transmitting audio data more than once. This technique includes previously transmitted audio data along with new audio data in a single IP packet. Duplicate Packet technique transmits the redundant data in separate IP packets and thereby increases bandwidth consumption by requiring additional data and header overhead.
Redundant and duplicate data transmission is shown to produce the best audio quality among other techniques in different packet loss situations (single packet, burst of 2,3… n packets). These approaches however, add overhead in term of more bandwidth requirement, CPU processing and packet transmission delay and may increase network congestion which lead to higher packet loss and may drops the voice call.
The proposed technique works toward improvement of QoS in VoIP system without adding excessive overhead in term of more network bandwidth requirement or processing/transmission delay.

The SBLR approach commonly is designed using several Operation factors. These include:

  • Degree of Redundancy :-This represents the amount of previously transmitted audio data to be retransmitted along with new audio data in a single IP packet.
  • P-persistence parameter :- Extensions of SBLR conventional redundant class works by randomly transmitting redundant audio with the redundancy rate depends on a pre-determined P-persistence parameter to improve QoS in VoIP system.
  • Threshold Value:-The SBLR technique redundancy may depend on fixed thresholds. When new packet arrives, the loss rate is compared to threshold if the loss is greater than the threshold, redundant data and new data will be included in the IP packet. Otherwise only new data will be sent.
  • Network QoS Factors:-The path taken by a VoIP packet traveling across the network depends on a large number of factors, including routing protocols and per network buffering policies. These factors may strongly impact the quality of VoIP.
  • SBLR technique is activated based on report about the actual network QoS measures. These include: packet Loss Rate, Packet Discard Rate -because of jitter and/or large delay, the distribution of lost and discarded packets, packets Round-Trip Delay corresponding to the packet path delay and End System Delay, which represents the delay that the VoIP endpoint adds (because of encoding, decoding and the jitter smoothing buffer).


The following measures to evaluate the performance of the proposed sender-based loss recovery scheme have been used:

  • Mean Opinion Score (MOS)
  • Throughput
  • Delay
  • Jitter
  • Cost of Technique
  • Power Ratio

MOS is a common benchmark introduced by ITU recommendation G.107 for measurement of the subjective quality of human speech, represented as a rating index with a maximum value equals to 5. MOS is derived by taking the average of numerical scores given by juries to rate quality and using it as a quantitative indicator of system performance. SBLR techniques generate more data bits than plain technique. The measure “Cost of Technique” can be defined as to compare the number of bits generated by specific technique to the number of bits generated by plain technique.

Power Ratio P: This measure helps in a collective analysis of different measures we used in this study. It is defined as a sum of functions of scaled performance measures including normalized throughput, normalized MOS, normalized delay, normalized jitter, cost of technique.


This technique works by incorporating an adaptive threshold for redundant transmission of voice audio data. The redundancy depends on two operation factors which are the actual current VoIP network packet loss and a threshold variable parameter set equal to the average network loss rate seen by the receiver. If network current loss rate is greater than the threshold, previous data and new data will be included in single IP packet. Otherwise only new data will be sent. The threshold average is updated whenever a new data segment arrives to the new loss average based on the current measured report of the loss rate seen by the receiver. Figure 1 shows the flow of Adaptive Threshold Redundant Delivery technique.
In mathematical notation;
Let threshold T = average loss. Let L= current loss rate.
For every packet
if L >T send packet j in frames i and i+1, otherwise send packet j in frame i
Update T to a new Average based on current and previous loss rates
Based on the above, the technique requires the knowledge of network loss rate to control sending redundant data. However, this requirement will not introduce extra overhead traffic to network because RTP Control Protocol, commonly used for VoIP calls packets transport, defines and reports a set of performance metrics such as Packet loss and discard rate, delay, and Call Quality (MOS). Thus, the proposed technique can be implemented with no additional changes to existing VoIP System.

Ms. Garima Verma
Assistant Professor
Dept of Information Technology

Employer Brand Management

All organisations strive for sustained competitive advantage in order to attain economic profit and to survive in an increasingly global and competitive marketplace. Human resources (HR) are crucial for competitive advantage, and they often represent the main investment in knowledge intensive firms. In large and open competing markets, brand and corporate reputation are crucial for attracting the best employees. There is a constant war over talent in several industries. The importance of brand and reputation is well known in the product market, and has recently become salient as well in the labour market including the recruitment process. Many organisations have long had their employer brand - the composite attributes and values offering enriching employment experiences that appeal to employees. A good brand is distinctive and diverse. It differentiates an organisation among competitors, stakeholders, labour markets and in the mind’s eye of future talent. It can be a crucial recruitment/attraction/retention tool - and a lever for better business performance. The attractiveness of an organisation is related to the manner in which particular characteristics of the job and the organisation are perceived. The importance of attracting high quality employees to organisations renders the development of a sound recruitment communication strategy essential. Finding the desired employees is not easy, as many organisations are seeking the same skills in their employees. The Employer Brand (EB) concept is based on the conviction that an employer can be seen as a brand Similar to customer brands, employer brands offer employees a variety of functional, economic and psychological advantages. In order to establish an employer brand, an organisation must build ‘an image in the minds of the potential labour market that the company, above all others, is a great place to work ’. Thus, employer brand management becomes important.

The below mentioned points should be studied to manage employer brand of any organisation:

  1. The Employee Value Proposition (EVP) should be clearly-stated, competitive, appealing - and fully representative of the entire organisation’s people.
  2. The organisation should be generally regarded as an employer of choice. The principles and practices should be justified.
  3. The employer brand profile should be clearly communicated amongst the talent markets, service providers, networks and recruitment agencies.
  4. The organisation must evaluate whatever it has done over the last two years to evaluate the brand promise and direction, along with its business benefits.
  5. The organisation must measure retention, motivation and engagement levels - and relate the findings to the employer brand.
  6. The brand, or EVP, should be compared with those of competitors, peers and sector leaders.

EB can therefore be seen as a part of the process of building a corporate identity: communicating and co-creating the organisation ’ s character in such a way that every current or potential employee feels a part of the organisation, shares and acts towards its core values and becomes an ambassador for the organisation. Organisations should therefore communicate their corporate identities to their personnel in order to develop, preserve and anchor them.

Ms. Karnica Tanwar
Assistant Professor
Dept. of Management Studies

Monday, 25 December 2017

Emotional Intelligence and Sales Performance

The sales manager invests lot of energy and money to train the sales force but still the sales executives fail to perform. The reason here is not the lack of selling skills but lack of soft skills also termed as Emotional Intelligence skills.

Questions like-
  • Can soft skills enable hard sales result
  • Why should organization care for soft skills?
  • How emotional intelligence linked with attaining sales target.

Defining Emotional intelligence in a nonprofessional’s language  is the ability to perceive one’s emotion and act as per the perceived emotion. Emotional intelligence training can be an effective tool to improve sales performance. The EI selling concept is unique in itself. This approach  integrates a consultative sales process with EI Skills. In the words of Dr. Goleman the EI adds to the IQ of which most of us today are more familiar .He elaborates that skills such as self awareness, emotional mastery,motivation,empathy and social effectiveness have a greater impact than  raw  intelligence on career success, outstanding individual  performance, leadership and creation of successful teams. The sales force work in an environment where social and emotional skills both are required. Their performance is related to their ability to manage social and emotional problems and to maintain high level of motivation to face problems arising due to negative feedback and failures. Hence maintaining a high emotional Intelligence in sales task accomplishment is necessary.

Dr. Manisha Gupta
Assistant Professor
Dept. of Management Studies
Nature versus Nurture

“Genius is one percent inspiration and 99% perspiration.” The famous adage goes. Whereas in our day to day life, we observe that most of the qualities/talents/habits of our offspring are credited to the parents or paternal/maternal relatives. It means the success is related to the genes we get from our parents and ancestors. Some qualities are same in every kid like two eyes, two ears, one nose and one mouth etc. but their height, stature, colour of eyes, shape of nose and facial appearance varies due to genetic composition. And the greatest difference lies in their temperament as it has been observed that there is a stark contrast in the behavior of siblings. Even fraternal siblings may have dissimilarities in their behaviour and temperament. So how come one of the sibling becomes a successful individual, earns name, fame and money and other one remains an underprivileged unknown statistics in the history and economic books. Children with same environment and same genes may grow into different personalities.

What is the reality then? Recent research findings infer that good education and conducive environment results in good habits and thus successful individuals. Although students studying in the same classroom achieve different goals in their lives yet innate traits and social influences affect the outcome of education. So, there is a co-relation between nature and nurture. Nurture helps nature in grooming an ordinary individual to a powerful social reformer or inventor. On the other hand, a child reared in an abusive family may become criminal. It can be observed in the most brutal crime of NCR. The accused involved in Nirbhaya case had abusive backgrounds (both physical and mental) that led to a brutal crime which can’t be forgotten by the present generation.

Nurturing affects a child physically as well a mentally. Physical care like having nutritious and timely food leads to a healthy body and proper education with training develops a nascent brain into an intellectual which becomes a social asset. In fact, one of the reasons of social disparity is the nurturing. A society with the culture of nurturing may have more intellectuals and well learnt citizens rather than a place where children are not taken care of properly. If we go through the biographies of great men, it clearly indicates that good nurturing led to the useful inventions and impressive theories. This is one of the reasons that all countries or societies don’t have equitable representation in the scientific and engineering achievements of the world. Great personalities like Aristotle, Pluto or Chander Gupt Maurya had role models and mentors who opened the path of their success.

In present scenario, when a child is bombarded with the sought or unsought information, right kind of nurturing is lost in technical gadgets. Playful activities with neighborhood friends, relations with extended family and chats on dinner table used to play a crucial role in the overall development of the child. Being well informed citizens of the civil society this is our responsibility to make world a better, peaceful and prosperous place. To achieve this objective, we need to nurture our future generations with great love and care.

Dr. Kiran Khanna
Associate Professor
Dept of Communication Studies

Monday, 11 December 2017

Cloud Computing

Cloud Computing in simple terms can be described as the delivery of on-demand computing services-storage, networking, servers, softwares, databases, analytics and more- over the internet (“the cloud”). Technically, the Cloud Computing can be defined as the virtualization and central management of datacenter resources as software defined pools.

Organizations offer the computing services that are termed as cloud providers as well as they are typically charge for cloud computing services depend on the usage i.e. on a pay-for-use basis.

Advantages of Cloud Computing:

Cloud Computing is a big change from the conventional way business consider about IT resources. Cloud Computing offers many attractive features for the business as well as end user.

  1. Cost- Cloud Computing eradicates the capital expenditure of purchasing hardware and software and setting up and operating on-site data centers, the IT experts for maintaining infrastructure, the rack of servers, the round the clock availability for electricity etc.
  2. Speed- Most Cloud Computing services are self service and on demand in nature, so even huge volumes of computing resources can be provisioned in minutes, only with just a few mouse clicks, providing business a lot of flexibility and eliminates the pressure off the capacity planning
  3. Global scale- The advantage of Cloud Computing services comprises the ability to scale elasticity. In Cloud Computing terms, that entails delivering the right amount of IT resources-for instance, more or less storage, computing power, bandwidth right when it is required and from the right geographical location.
  4. Productivity- On-site data centers typically need a fair amount of “racking” and “stacking”- software patching, hardware setup, and other time consuming IT management tasks. Cloud Computing eliminates the need for many of these chores, so IT teams can spare more quality time on accomplishing more vital business goals.
  5. Performance- The biggest Cloud Computing services operates on worldwide network of protected data centers, which are periodically updated to the latest versions of fast and efficient computing hardware. This provides many advantages over a single corporate data center along with less network latency from applications and generate economies of scale.
  6. Reliability- Cloud Computing enables disaster recovery, data back up and business continuity tasks to be performed easily and also they are less expensive as data can be reflected at multiple redundant sites on the cloud provider network.

Applications of cloud computing:

Though the first Cloud Computing services started only a decade ago, now-a-days a large number of organizations – from small start-ups to huge global enterprises, government agencies to non-profits firms- are implementing the technology for enhancing their business. These are the few tasks that are made possible with the cloud:

  • ·        Create new apps and services
  • ·         Store, back up and recover data
  • ·         Host websites and blogs
  • ·         Stream audio and video
  • ·         Deliver software on demand
  • ·         Analyse data for patterns and make predictions

Ms. Nisha Wadhawan
Assistant Professor
Dept. of Management Studies